Mark Baxter and I wrote a commentary on this great paper by Rudebeck et al. They showed that the orbitofrontal cortex, a brain region thought to be involved in behavioural flexibility and emotion processing, may actually have a more restricted role than previously thought. Damage to the orbitofrontal cortex in monkeys and in humans can also lead to damage to the white matter tracts passing through it, and if those tracts are spared then the effect of the damage to orbitofrontal cortex is limited. It shows that we should be cautious when interpreting the effects of lesion studies. The orbitofrontal cortex is more likely to have a specific role in goal-directed behaviour and outcome expectation.